Ahmadiyya Congregation in the Shadow of Religious Politics: Tensions Between Law and Freedom of Religion

Moh Fadhil, Muhammad Rosyad Sudrajad

Abstract


The right to freedom of religion is a fundamental right. For Indonesian people, religion is not only seen as a ritual but also as a part of the social relations between society members and the state. However, the sacred value of religion in social relations is degraded through normative recognition in the form of official religious politics. The policy does not actually engender order and justice. On the contrary, official religious political policies and restrictions on religious freedom raise widespread discriminatory practices that affect religious minority groups, such as the Indonesian Ahmadiyya Community. The purpose of this study is to examine the tension between the law and the right to freedom of religion or belief in cases of discrimination against the Ahmadiyya Community of Indonesia from the point of view of the legal theory of legal disorder. The research methods used are socio-legal with a statutory approach, a conceptual approach, and a critical legal study approach using legal disorder theory. This research emphasizes that the Ahmadiyya, as a sect in Islam, has the right to freedom of religion within the Forum Internum. In practice, the official religious politics subordinated the rights of religious freedom under the control of religious majoritarianism. However, empirical facts show that the multireligious social context of Indonesian society places the situation in a state of irregularity. Through the disorder of law theory, Sampford opens the horizons of the legal paradigm, showing that seeing and answering various irregularities cannot be done through the lens of order.

Keywords


Ahmadiyya Community; Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief; Discrimination; the Disorder of Law Theory

Full Text:

PDF

References


Absori and Achmadi. 2017. "Transplantasi Nilai Moral Dalam Budaya Untuk Menuju Hukum Berkeadilan (Perspektif Hukum Sistematik Ke Non-Sistematik Charles Sampford." in Pp. 108-17 in Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Ke- 6 Asosiasi Program Pascasarjana Perguruan Tinggi Muhammadiyah 'Aisyiyah (Appptma). Makassar: Asosiasi Program Pascasarjana Perguruan Tinggi Muhammadiyah 'Aisyiyah (Appptma.

Ahmad, Rumadi. 2016. "Hak Beragama Atau Berkeyakinan." in Buku Sumber Hak Atas Kebebasan Beragama Atau Berkeyakinan Di Indonesia, edited by A. M. Dja'far, A. Asfinawati, F. Yonesta, M. Hafiz, M. Isnur, M. S. Azhari, R. Ahmad, S. A. Tardi, T. Sutanto and Z. Abidin. Jakarta: Wahid Foundation and Tifa Foundation.

Anam, Syaiful and Zuly Qodir. 2011. "Reproduksi Kekerasan Kolektif: Studi Kasus Konflik Ahmadiyah Di Lombok-Ntb Tahun 1998-2006." Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Azhari, M. Subhi. 2014. "Kebebasan Beragama Atau Berkeyakinan Dan Problem Pendirian Rumah Ibadah Di Indonesia." Jurnal HAM 11(11):35–61. doi: 10.58823/jham.v11i11.87.

Bagir, Zainal Abidin, Asfinawati Asfinawati, Suhadi Suhadi and Renata Arianingtyas. 2019. Membatasi Tanpa Melanggar. Yogyakarta: CRCS UGM.

Bakar, Osman. 2010. "Exclusive and Inclusive Islam in the Qur'an: Implications for Muslim-Jewish Relations." Journal of the Interdisciplinary Study of Monotheistic Religions. doi: 10.14988/re.2017.0000015995.

Banakar, Reza and Max Travers. 2005. Theory and Method in Socio-Legal Research. Onati: Hart Publishing Oxford and Portland Oregon.

Burhani, Ahmad Najib. 2021. "'It's a Jihad': Justifying Violence Towards the Ahmadiyya in Indonesia." TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia 9(1):99–112. doi: 10.1017/trn.2020.8.

Dahlan, Moh. 2014. "Hubungan Agama Dan Negara Di Indonesia." Analisis: Jurnal Studi Keislaman 14(1):1–28. doi: 10.24042/ajsk.v14i1.635.

Elkhairati, Elkhairati. 2019. "Piagam Madinah Dan Spiritnya Dalam Undang-Undang Dasar (Uud) 1945." Al-Istinbath : Jurnal Hukum Islam 4(1):51–68. doi: 10.29240/jhi.v4i1.776.

Fitriah, Mar'atun and Nur Wahyuni Utami. 2022. "Menyoal Kedudukan Hukum Surat Keputusan Bersama (Skb) Menteri Dalam Rangka Penanganan Covid-19 Sebagai Upaya Penataan Regulasi." Jurnal Legislasi Indonesia 19(2):279–91. doi: 10.54629/jli.v19i2.856.

Giyono, Urip. 2020. "Kajian Kritis Hubungan Hukum Dan Moral Dalam Paradigma Positivisme Hukum." Jurnal Yustitia 21(2):224–30. doi: 10.1080/15570274.2018.1535046.

Grüll, Christoph and Erin K. Wilson. 2018. "Universal or Particular … or Both? The Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief in Cross-Cultural Perspective." The Review of Faith & International Affairs 16(4):88-101. doi: 10.1080/15570274.2018.1535046.

Hamimah, Siti. 2018. "Dinamika Kasus Ahmadiyah Dan Aliran Kepercayaan Lainnya Serta Penyelesaiannya Melalui Hukum Tertulis Di Indonesia." Syariah: Jurnal Hukum Dan Pemikiran 18(1):19–29. doi: 10.18592/sy.v18i1.2062.

Hanna, Michael Wahid. 2015. "Public Order and Egypt's Statist Tradition." The Review of Faith & International Affairs 13(1):23–30. doi: 10.1080/15570274.2015.1005916.

Hermanto, Asep Bambang. 2016. "Ajaran Positivisme Hukum Di Indonesia:Kritik Dan Alternatif Solusinya." Selisik: Jurnal Hukum Dan Bisnis 2(2):108–21. doi: 10.35814/selisik.v2i2.650.

Hobbes, Thomas. 1996. Leviathan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Imannsyah, Addy. 2011. Perlindungan Negara Terhadap Kebebasan Beragama Di Indonesia (Studi Kasus Surat Keputusan Gubernur Jawa Timur No. 188/94/Kpts/013/2011 Tentang Larangan Aktivitas Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia (Jai) Di Jawa Timur: Universitas Airlangga.

Irawan, Andi Muhammad and Zifirdaus Adnan. 2021. "The Ahmadiyya, Blasphemy and Religious Freedom: The Institutional Discourse Analysis of Religious Discrimination in Indonesia." Muslim World Journal of Human Rights 18(1):79–102. doi: 10.1515/mwjhr-2020-0034.

Irawan, Andi Muhammad, Iskandar Abdul Samad, Sahril Nur, Iskandar Iskandar, Afifuddin Afifuddin and Andi Syurganda. 2022. "Arguing against Political and Religious Discriminations: Critical Discourse Analysis of Indonesian Ahmadiyya." Muslim World Journal of Human Rights 19(1):53–76. doi: 10.1515/mwjhr-2021-0024.

Irianto, Sulistyowati. 2012. "Memperkenalkan Kajian Sosio-Legal Dan Implikasi Metodologisnya." in Kajian Sosio Legal: Seri Unsur-Unsur Penyusun Bangunan Negara Hukum, edited by A. W. Bedner, S. Irianto, J. M. Otto and T. D. Wirastri. Denpasar: Pustaka Larasan.

Jufri, Muwaffiq. 2016. "Pembatasan Terhadap Hak Dan Kebebasan Beragama Di Indonesia." Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Pancasila Dan Kewarganegaraan 1(1):40–47. doi: 10.17977/um019v1i12016p040.

Kherid, Muhammad Nizar and Fifiana Wisnaeni. 2018. "Pluralism Justice System Dalam Penyelesaian Masalah Kebebasan Beragama." Masalah-Masalah Hukum 48(4):385–92. doi: 10.14710/mmh.48.4.2019.385-392.

Khoiron, Mahbib. 2018. "Negara Vis-À-Vis Jemaat Ahmadiyah: Dominasi Yang Tak Konstan." Jurnal Socius: Journal of Sociology Research and Education 5(2):61–74. doi: 10.24036/scs.v5i2.124.

Lestari, Dian. 2022. "Trauma Dan Viktimisasi Berkelanjutan Keluarga Ahmadiyah Pasca Penyerangan Masjid Miftahul Huda Di Sintang." in Situs Resmi Project Multatuli.

Maarif, Samsul. 2017. "Pasang Surut Rekognisi Agama Leluhur Dalam Politik Agama Di Indonesia." in Crcs (Center for Religious and Cross-Cultural Studies) Progam Studi Agama Dan Lintas Budaya Sekolah Pascasarjana Lintas Disiplin, Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Menoh, Gusti A. B. 2015. Agama Dalam Ruang Publik Hubungan Antara Agama Dan Negara Dalam Masyarakat Postsekuler Menurut Jurgen Habermas. Yogyakarta: Penerbit PT Kanisius.

Muhaimin, Muhaimin. 2020. Metode Penelitian Hukum. Mataram: Mataram University Press.

Nisa, Nurul and Dinie Anggraeni Dewi. 2021. "Pancasila Sebagai Dasar Dalam Kebebasan Beragama." Jurnal Pendidikan Tambusai 5(1):890–96.

Nowak, Manfred and Tanja Vospernik. 2004. "Permissible Restrictions on Freedom of Religion or Belief." in Facilitating Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Deskbook, edited by T. Lindholm, J. W. C. Durham and B. G. Tahzib-Lie. Oslo: Springer Science+Business.

Pertiwi, Mahaarum Kusuma. 2021. "Membatasi Tidak Melindungi: Analisis Sosio-Legal Skb 3 Menteri No." in 3/2008 Dan Peraturan Gubernur Jawa Barat No. 12/2011 Tentang Ahmadiyah. Yogyakarta.

Pinilih, Sekar Anggun Gading and Sumber Nurul Hikmah. 2018. "Aktualisasi Nilai-Nilai Pancasila Terhadap Hak Atas Kebebasan Beragama Dan Beribadah Di Indonesia." Masalah-Masalah Hukum 47(1):40–46. doi: 10.14710/mmh.47.1.2018.40-46.

Plaituka, Solidaman Bertho. 2016. "Constitutional Complaint Dalam Rangka Penegakan Hak Asasi Manusia Di Republik Indonesia." Jurnal Media Hukum 23(2):110–19. doi: 10.18196/jmh.2015.0072.110-120.

Raharjo, Agus. 2006. "Hukum Dan Dilema Pencitraannya (Transisi Paradigmatis Ilmu Hukum Dalam Teori Dan Praktek." Jurnal Hukum Pro Justitia 24(1):12–26.

Rahmanto, Tony Yuri. 2016. "Kebebasan Berekspresi Dalam Perspektif Hak Asasi Manusia: Perlindungan, Permasalahan, Dan Implementasinya Di Provinsi Jawa Barat." Jurnal HAM 7(1):45–53. doi: 10.30641/ham.2016.7.45-53.

Regus, Maksimus. 2022. "Centering Acculturation as an Approach to Challenging the Fragility of Human Rights in Indonesia." Journal of Southeast Asian Human Rights 6(2):299–322. doi: 10.19184/jseahr.v6i2.31150.

Rosyid, Moh. 2011. "Ahmadiyah Di Kabupaten Kudus." Analisa Journal of Social Science and Religion 18(1):89–102. doi: 10.18784/analisa.v18i1.126.

Sampford, Charles. 1989. The Disorder of Law, a Critique of Legal Theory. New York City: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Seidman, Steven and Jeffrey C. Alexander. 2008. "Political Liberalism by John Rawls." in The New Social Theory Reader. Oxfordshire: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.

Shaleh, Ali Ismail and Fifiana Wisnaeni. 2019. "Hubungan Agama Dan Negara Menurut Pancasila Dan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945." Jurnal Pembangunan Hukum Indonesia 1(2):237–49. doi: 10.14710/jphi.v1i2.237-249.

Sidik, Munasir. 2007. Dasar-Dasar Hukum & Legalitas Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia. Jakarta: Neratja Press.

Simamora, Apriadi Richi, Abdul Hamid and M. Dian Hikmawan. 2019. "Diskriminasi Terhadap Kelompok Minoritas Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia (Jai) Di Tangerang Selatan." International Journal of Demos 1(1):19–37. doi: 10.31506/ijd.v1i1.4.

Situmorang, Victorio H. 2019. "Kebebasan Beragama Sebagai Bagian Dari Hak Asasi Manusia." Jurnal HAM 10(1):57–68. doi: 10.30641/ham.2019.10.57-67.

Sofanudin, Aji. 2012. "Studi Tahapan Penanganan Kasus Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia (Jai." Harmoni 11(2):15–24.

Sopyan, Yayan. 2015. "Menyoal Kebebasan Beragama Dan Penodaan Agama Di Indonesia: Telaah Atas Putusan Mk No. 140/Puu-Vii/2009." Jurnal Cita Hukum 3(2):195–212. doi: 10.15408/jch.v2i2.2314.

Suteki, Suteki. 2015. Masa Depan Hukum Progresif. Yogyakarta: Thafa Media.

Syafi'ie, M. 2011. "Ambiguitas Hak Kebebasan Beragama Di Indonesia Dan Posisinya Pasca Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi." Jurnal Konstitusi 8(5):675–705. doi: 10.31078/jk853.

Syahbudi, Syahbudi. 2021a. "Memahami Dialektika Antara Perilaku Agama Dan Politik Dalam Perumusan Hukum Islam Di Indonesia." doi: 10.29240/jhi.v6i2.3373.

Syahbudi, Syahbudi. 2021b. "Understanding Pancasila in the Maqashid-Based Framework and Its Relevance to Indonesian Religious Harmony: A Dialogue Approach." Istinbath: Jurnal Hukum Dan Ekonomi Islam 20(1):1–20. doi: 10.20414/ijhi.v20i1.318.

Syarifudin, Amir and Indah Febriani. 2015. "Sistem Hukum Dan Teori Hukum Chaos." Hasanuddin Law Review 1(2):296–306. doi: 10.20956/halrev.v1i2.85.

Tobroni, Faiq. 2020. "Pembatasan Kegiatan Keagamaan Dalam Penanganan Covid-19." Jurnal Komunikasi Hukum 6(2):369–95. doi: 10.21274/dinamika.2019.19.2.326-348.

Turmudi, Hadis, Kelik Wardiono, Harun Harun and Khudzaifah Dimyati. 2021. "The Implementation of Chaos Theory of Law on the Village Government System in Indonesia." Paper presented at the Pp. 272-79 in International Conference on Community Empowerment and Engagement (ICCEE 2021).

Uddin, Asma. 2015. "Public (Dis)Order and Public (Im)Morality: An Introduction to the Spring 2015 Issue." The Review of Faith & International Affairs 13(1):1–4. doi: 10.1080/15570274.2015.1005920.

Utomo, Heri Dwi. 2018. "Paradigma Hukum Spiritual-Transendental: Sebuah Deskripsi Terhadap Chaos Epistemologis Dalam Positivisme Hukum." in Pp. 99-114 in Prosiding Seminar Nasional & Call for Papers Hukum Transendental. Yogyakarta: Genta Publishing.

Ward, Ian. 2021a. Politika, Kekuasaan Dan Pragmatisme Seri Pengantar Teori Hukum Kritis. Bandung: Nusa Media.

Ward, Ian. 2021b. Politik Positivisme Seri Pengantar Teori Hukum Kritis. Bandung: Nusa Media.

Wardiono, Kelik. 2012. "Chaos Theory: Sebuah Ancangan Dalam Memahami Hukum." Jurnal Ilmu Hukum 15(2):136–48.

Wijayana, Diah and Nur Hidayat Sardini. 2019. "Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia Masyarakat Minoritas Jemaat Ahmadiyah (Studi Kasus : Perusakan Masjid Al-Kautsar Jemaat Ahmadiyah Di Desa Purworejo Kecamatan Ringinarum Kabupaten Kendal Tahun 2016." Journal of Politic and Government Studies 8(3):91–100.

Yuliansyah, Dedy and Basri Effendi. 2021. "Tanggung Jawab Negara Dalam Menjamin Kebebasan Beragama." Jurnal Hukum Dan Keadilan "Mediasi" 8(1):65–78. doi: 10.37598/jm.v8i1.925.

Yunazwardi, Muhammad Iqbal and Aulia Nabila. 2021. "Implementasi Norma Internasional Mengenai Kebebasan Beragama Dan Berkeyakinan Di Indonesia." Indonesian Perspective 6(1):1–21. doi: 10.14710/ip.v6i1.37510.

Zuldin, Muhamad. 2013. "Konflik Agama Dan Penyelesaiannya: Kasus Ahmadiyah Di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya, Jawa Barat." Miqot: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman 37(2):438–48. doi: 10.30821/miqot.v37i2.91.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18784/analisa.v8i1.1829
Abstract - 198 PDF - 136

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2023 Analisa: Journal of Social Science and Religion

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
Analisa: Journal of Social and Religion is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 hit counter joomla View My Stats