The Other Side of Ramadan: Ramadan and its implication on Social Cohesion in West Sumatra and Yogyakarta

Nurus Shalihin, Yulia Yulia, Muhammad Sholihin


This article examines the implications of Ramadan on social cohesion in communities in West Sumatra and Yogyakarta. The issue is based on the assumption that Ramadan is a religious momentum that is only concerned with the vertical affairs between humans and their Lord alone and has a social dimension, i.e., values of solidarity, sense of belonging, tolerance, and social harmony. These are fostered through religious rituals such as fasting, zakat, and other kinds of worship. The study adopted a qualitative approach and was supported by survey data on several selected community samples. Survey data was collected related to the volume of philanthropy, the frequency of ritual worship during the month of Ramadan concerning the level of quality of social cohesion, solidarity, and social trustworthiness. In addition, the data were collected through a questionnaire instrument to capture the fundamental impact of Ramadan on strengthening social capital. In general, this study concludes that West Sumatra is superior to Yogyakarta for its social cohesion on 3 (three) indicators: moral feeling, sense of belonging, and social harmony. However, despite the difference in numbers between the two regions, there are differences among indicators. While for the other two indicators, safety feeling and tolerance, Yogyakarta is better than West Sumatra.


Ramadhan; Social Cohesion; Moral Feeling; Sense of Belonging; Social Harmony; Tolerance, and Social Capital

Full Text:



Abdullah, A., Marzbali, M. H., Tilaki, M. J. M., & Bahauddin, A. (2014). The Influence of Permeability on Social Cohesion: Is it Good or Bad? Asia Pacific International Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies Sirius Business Park Berlin-Yard Field, 168(January), 261–269.

Arnett, R. D., & Sidanius, J. (2018). Sacrificing status for social harmony: Concealing relatively high status identities from one’s peers. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 147(May), 108–126.

Capistrano, R. C. G., & Weaver, A. (2018). That’s what friends are for: Emotional solidarity, friendship and social interactions between first-generation immigrants and their visiting friends. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 36, 57–66.

Carrasco, M. A., & Bilal, U. (2016). A sign of the times: To have or to be? Social capital or social cohesion? Social Science & Medicine, 159, 127–131.

Creswell, J. W. (2015). Penelitian Kualitatif dan Desain Riset (Terjemahan). Pustaka Pelajar.

de Josselin de Jong, P. E. (1980). Minangkabau and Negri Sembilan. Springer Netherlands.

Durkheim, E. (1984). The Division of Labour in Society (S. Lukes (ed.)). Palgrave Macmillan.

Forrest, R., & Kearns, A. (2001). Social Cohesion, Social Capital and The Neighbourhood. Urban Studies, 38(12), 2125–2143.

Green, A., & Janmaat, J. G. (2011). Regimes of Social Cohesion: societies and the crisis of globalization. Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Hannequart, A. (1992). Economic and Social Cohesion in Europe: A New Objective. Routledge.

Hasim, M. (2009). Peta Potensi Keagamaan Masyarakat Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Analisa, 16(1), 74.

Hodayah, K., & Rahman, A. A. (2012). Islam Dan Budaya Masyarakat Yogyakarta Ditinjau Dari Perspektif Sejarah. El-HARAKAH.

Jupp, J., Nieuwenhuysen, J., & Dawson, E. (2017). Social Cohesion in Australia. Cambridge University Press.

Kasmo, M. A., Possumah, B. T., Mohamad, Z., Wan Hassan, W. Z., & Yunos, N. (2015). The Role of Religion in Social Cohesion within the Contemporary Muslim Society in Malaysia: Revisited. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences.

Lambert, N. M., Stillman, T. F., Hicks, J. A., Kamble, S., Baumeister, R. F., & Fincham, F. D. (2013). To Belong Is to Matter: Sense of Belonging Enhances Meaning in Life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(11), 1418–1427.

Maxwell, J. (1996). Social Dimensions of Economic Growth. Department of Economics, University of Alberta.

McAteer, J. (2016). How to Be a Moral Taste Theorist. Essays in Philosophy, 17(1), 5–21.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. SAGE Publications.

Möller, A. (2005). Ramadan in Java: The Joy and Jihad of Ritual Fasting. Department of History and Anthropology of Religions, Lund University.

Möller, A. (2006). Islam and Traweh Prayers in Java. Anpere, 1–20.

Muhadjir, N. (1989). Metode Penelitian. Raja Sarasin.

Munck, R. (2009). Social Integration. Global Social Policy, 9(1), 16–18.

OECD. (2011). Perspectives on Global Development 2012. Social Cohesion in A Shifting Word. OECD Publishing.

OECD. (2013). Strengthening Social Cohesion in Korea: In Strengthening Social Cohesion in Korea (2013th ed.). OECD.

Otte, H. (2019). Bonding or bridging? On art participation and social cohesion in a rural region of the Netherlands. Poetics, 76, 101355.

Ouafy, S. El, & Chakir, A. (2015). The Impact of Religiosity in Explanation of Moroccan Very Small Businesses Behaviour Towardislamic Financial Products. IOSR Journal of Business and ManagementVer. II, 17(7), 71–76.

Peters, I. (2018). Cohesion and Fragmentation in Social Movements. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Rasyid, F. (2008). Karakteristik dan Faktor-Faktor Yang Memperngaruhi Lanskap Budaya Nagari Kamang Mudik di Kabupaten Agam Propinsi Sumatera Barat. Institut Pertanian Lanskap.

Rees-Punia, E., Hathaway, E. D., & Gay, J. L. (2018). Crime, perceived safety, and physical activity: A meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine, 111, 307–313.

Rehman, S. S., & Askari, H. (2010). How Islamic are Islamic Countries? Global Economy Journal, 10(2), 1850198.

Schiefer, D., & van der Noll, J. (2017). The Essentials of Social Cohesion: A Literature Review. Social Indicators Research, 132(2), 579–603.

Schnabel, A., & Groetsch, F. (2014). In God we trust – the role of religion for cohesion and integration in current European societies. European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology, 1(4), 375–398.

Shah Alam, S., Mohd, R., & Hisham, B. (2011). Is religiosity an important determinant on Muslim consumer behaviour in Malaysia? Journal of Islamic Marketing, 2(1), 83–96.

Sovia Firdaus, D. R., P.Lubis, D., Susanto, D., & Soetarto, E. (2018). Portrait of The Minangkabau Culture According to Hofstede’s Six Cultural Dimensions. Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan, 6(2).

Tripp, C. (2006). Islam and the Moral Economy. Cambridge University Press.

Abstract - 314 PDF - 228


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Analisa: Journal of Social Science and Religion

Creative Commons License
Analisa: Journal of Social and Religion is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 hit counter joomla View My Stats