THE RATIONAL ACTION OF ELITE: MITIGATION THE COVID-19 AND COMMUNITY RESISTANCE IN PESANTREN SALAFIYAH SYAFI’IYAH SITUBONDO

Nurul Azizah

Abstract


The role of religious elite has legitimation as the highest symbolic representation of religious authorities in society especially on Islamic boarding school area. In this digital era where the public space widely open, there is a tendency related to the transformation of religion thinking paradigm, culture and tradition which is becoming interesting discussion. As result, there is a trend of dualism that is accommodative and resistance society. In different interpretation context, religion is no longer elitist, absolute, and contestation. This paper aims at analysing the society resistance and the role of religion elite to anticipate the spread of Covid-19 in Islamic boarding school. Based on the result of interview, observation, and data analysis of descriptive qualitative research, it revealed: First, there is community anachronism paradigm to religion and culture, emergence of society resistance to rules which have been determined by the government. Second, the role of religion elite and religion fatwa has been succeeded to apply in Islamic boarding school area and people who have patron and client relationship. The spreading of information is very effective through social media. Third, the government policy related to the restriction of community activities and socialization of religion elite fatwa are not quite effective to decrease the society resistance. This paper suggested it is necessary to have synergy between religion elite and government, so that it can increase the community rationality to the religion and culture understanding and it is not stuck on orthodox thinking in this Covid -19 pandemic.


Keywords


Elite Power; Public Resistance; Fatwa; Kyai; Pesantren

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akram, Muhammad, Asim Nasar, and Abid Rehman. 2021. “Misuse of Charitable Giving to Finance Violent Extremism; A Futuristic Actions Study amidst COVID-19 Pandemic.” Social Sciences & Humanities Open 4(1):100140. doi: 10.1016/j.ssaho.2021.100140.

Alexandre Caero. 2011. “The Making of the Fatwa.” Archives de Sciences Sociales Des Religions 155:81–100. doi: 10.4000/assr.23312.

Algahtani, Fahad D., Mohamed Ali Alzain, Najoua Haouas, Khadijah Angawi, Bandar Alsaif, Adel Kadri, Mohamed A. Dkhil, Mejdi Snoussi, and Rafat Zrieq. 2021. “Coping during Covid-19 Pandemic in Saudi Community: Religious Attitudes, Practices and Associated Factors.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(16).

Armitage, Christopher J., Chris Keyworth, Jessica Z. Leather, Lucie Byrne-Davis, and Tracy Epton. 2021. “Identifying Targets for Interventions to Support Public Adherence to Government Instructions to Reduce Transmission of SARS-CoV-2.” BMC Public Health 21(1).

Azizah, Nurul. 2013. Artikulasi Politik Santri: Dari Kyai Menjadi Bupati. Yogjakarta: Pustaka Pelajar ISBN:978-602-2292-62-3.

Azizah, Nurul, Joseph Okwesili Nkwede, and Mohammad Armoyu. 2021. “The Octopus-like Power of Pesantren Dynasty in the Dynamics of Local Politics.” doi: 10.1080/23311886.2021.1962056.

Barbosa, Luciana Mendes, and Robert Coates. 2021. “Resisting Disaster Chronopolitics: Favelas and Forced Displacement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 63(December 2020):102447. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102447.

Barmania, Sima, and Michael J. Reiss. 2021. “Health Promotion Perspectives on the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Importance of Religion.” Global Health Promotion 28(1):15–22. doi: 10.1177/1757975920972992.

Berenschot, Ward. 2018. “The Political Economy of Clientelism: A Comparative Study of Indonesia’s Patronage Democracy.” Comparative Political Studies. doi: 10.1177/0010414018758756.

Betsch, Cornelia, Lothar H. Wieler, and Katrine Habersaat. 2020. “Monitoring Behavioural Insights Related to COVID-19.” The Lancet 395(10232):1255–56. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30729-7.

Black, Ann, and Nadirsyah Hosen. 2009. “FATWAS: Their Role in Contemporary Secular Australia.” Griffith Law Review 18(2):405–27. doi: 10.1080/10383441.2009.10854648.

Bourchier, David M. 2019. “Two Decades of Ideological Contestation in Indonesia: From Democratic Cosmopolitanism to Religious Nationalism.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 49(5):713–33. doi: 10.1080/00472336.2019.1590620.

Burhani, Ahmad Najib. 2021. “It’s a Jihad: Justifying Violence towards the Ahmadiyya in Indonesia.” TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia 9(1):99–112. doi: 10.1017/trn.2020.8.

Caeiro, Alexandre. 2010. “The Power of European Fatwas: The Minority Fiqh Project and the Making of an Islamic Counterpublic.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 42(3):435–49. doi: 10.1017/S0020743810000437.

Chalik, Abdul. 2016. “Elite Lokal Yang Berbasis Pesantren Dalam Kontestasi Pemilihan Kepala Daerah Jawa Timur.” KARSA: Jurnal Sosial Dan Budaya Keislaman 23(2):364. doi: 10.19105/karsa.v23i2.744.

Cover, Rob. 2021. “Identity in the Disrupted Time of COVID-19: Performativity, Crisis, Mobility and Ethics.” Social Sciences & Humanities Open 4(1):100175. doi: 10.1016/j.ssaho.2021.100175.

Dalsheim, Joyce. 2013. “Anachronism and Morality: Israeli Settlement, Palestinian Nationalism, and Human Liberation.” Theory, Culture & Society 30(3):29–60. doi: 10.1177/0263276412460697.

Fahham, A. M. 2020. “PEMBELAJARAN DI PESANTREN PADA MASA PANDEMI COVID-19.” Pusat Penelitian Badan Keahlian DPR RI.

Gade, Anna M. n.d. “* J H Islamic Law and the Environment in Indonesia *.” 19:161–83.

García, A. R. 2021. “Koselleck and the Margins of History: Anachronism, Memory, Latency | Koselleck y Los Márgenes Estéticos de La Historia: Anacronismo, Memoria y Latencia.” Revista de Historiografia (34):183–208.

Hafner, Christoph A., and Tongle Sun. 2021. “The ‘Team of 5 Million’: The Joint Construction of Leadership Discourse during the Covid-19 Pandemic in New Zealand.” Discourse, Context and Media 43:100523. doi: 10.1016/j.dcm.2021.100523.

Hasyim, Syafiq. 2020. “Fatwas and Democracy: Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI, Indonesian Ulema Council) and Rising Conservatism in Indonesian Islam.” TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia 8(1):21–35. doi: 10.1017/trn.2019.13.

Huebner, Daniel R. 2021. “Anachronism: The Queer Pragmatics of Understanding the Past in the Present.” American Sociologist.

Kosim, Mohammad. 2012. “KYAI DAN BLATER (Elite Lokal Dalam Masyarakat Madura).” Karsa: The Journal of Social and Islamic Culture 12(2):149–60.

Mahmood, Qaisar Khalid, Sara Rizvi Jafree, Malik Muhammad Sohail, and Muhammad Babar Akram. 2021. “A Cross-Sectional Survey of Pakistani Muslims Coping with Health Anxiety through Religiosity during the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Journal of Religion and Health 60(3):1462–74.

Miles, Matthew B, A. Michael Huberman. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis. Vol. Second Edi. 2nd ed. California.

Miles, Matthew B., A. Michael Huberman, and Johnny Saldana. 2014. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. Third Edition.

Murtadlo, Muhamad. 2019. “The Development of Scientific Writing Skills in Pesantren: A Comparative Analysis on Ma’Had Aly Sukorejo Situbondo and Ma’Had Aly Manggisan Wonosobo.” Analisa: Journal of Social Science and Religion 4(02):205–24. doi: 10.18784/analisa.v4i02.915.

Nancy armstrong. 2020. “Realism and Anachronism.” Novel, Inc, 137–42.

Olsson, Susanne. 2014. “Proselytizing Islam-Problematizing ‘Salafism.’” Muslim World 104(1–2):171–97. doi: 10.1111/muwo.12046.

Prempeh, Charles. 2021. “Religion and the State in an Episodic Moment of COVID-19 in Ghana.” Social Sciences & Humanities Open 4(1):100141. doi: 10.1016/j.ssaho.2021.100141.

Pribadi, Yanwar. 2018. Islam and Santri Culture in Madura.

Ramizi, Erag. 2020. “Anachronic Potentialities.” Diacritics 48(2):4–16. doi: 10.1353/dia.2020.0007.

Razafindrakoto, Mireille, François Roubaud, and Linda Rua. 2021. “Hyper-Elites and Network: Capturing the Powerful Upper Tail in Madagascar.” World Development 147:105655. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105655.

Roniger, Luis. 2015. “Patron-Client Relations, Social and Anthropological Study Of.” in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition.

Rusli, Nurdin. 2021. “Understanding Indonesia ’ S Millennial :” Education and Information Technologies. doi: http;//doi/10.1007/s10639-021-10779-7.

Said, Hasani Ahmad, Lina Sobariyah, Sahmin Madina, Fakultas Ushuluddin, U. I. N. Syarif, Hidayatullah Jakarta, and Fakultas Ushuluddin Iain. 2020. “Harmonization of Culture and Religion : Comparison of Baduy and Nahdlatul Ulama Traditions.” 20(2):387–406.

Satuan Tugas Penanganan COVID-19. 2021. Data Sebaran.

Sekeris, Petros G. 2011. “Endogenous Elites: Power Structure and Patron-Client Relationships.” Economics of Governance. doi: 10.1007/s10101-010-0093-8.

Sisler, Vit. 2011. “Cyber Counsellors: Online Fatwas, Arbitration Tribunals and the Construction of Muslim Identity in the UK.” Information Communication and Society 14(8):1136–59. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2011.579140.

Sovacool, Benjamin K., and Marie Claire Brisbois. 2019. “Elite Power in Low-Carbon Transitions: A Critical and Interdisciplinary Review.” Energy Research and Social Science 57(December 2018):101242. doi: 10.1016/j.erss.2019.101242.

Subakhi Kusuma Dewi. 2020. “December 2020.” DINIKA Academic Journal of Islamic Studies 5(2). doi: 10.36548/jismac.2020.4.

Sumbulah, Umi. 2015. “Pluralisme Dan Kerukunan Umat Beragama.” Analisa: Journal of Social and Religion 22(1):1–13.

Syafe’i, Imam. 2017. “PONDOK PESANTREN: Lembaga Pendidikan Pembentukan Karakter.” Al-Tadzkiyyah: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam 8(1):61. doi: 10.24042/atjpi.v8i1.2097.

Thohir, Ajid, Dedi Supriadi, Mulyana, Faizal Arifin, and Muhammad Andi Septiadi. 2021. “The Struggle Of Freemasonry And Islamic Ideology In The Twentieth Century During Colonialization In Indonesia.” Heliyon 7(10). doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08237.

Tjipto Subadi. 2006. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif. 1st ed. edited by Erlina Farida Hidayati. Surakarta: Muhamadiyah University Press.

Toro-Alzate, Luisa, Karlijn Hofstraat, and Daniel H. de Vries. 2021. “The Pandemic beyond the Pandemic: A Scoping Review on the Social Relationships between Covid-19 and Antimicrobial Resistance.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(16).

Veradella anugrah, Yesinta, machfud fauzi, Agus. 2019. “HEGEMONI KYAI TERHADAP SANTRI.” Paradigma.

Vidhyandika D. Perkasa. 2020. Social Distancing Dan Pembangkangan Publik : Perspektif Antropologis Dalam.

Warczok, Tomasz, and Stephanie Beyer. 2021. “The Logic of Knowledge Production: Power Structures and Symbolic Divisions in the Elite Field of American Sociology.” Poetics 87(March 2020):101531. doi: 10.1016/j.poetic.2021.101531.

Zienkowski, Jan. 2017. “Reflexivity in the Transdisciplinary Field of Critical Discourse Studies.” Palgrave Communications 3(1).

Zienkowski, Jan, and Benjamin De Cleen. 2021. “The Polyphonic Critique of Trade Unions: Unpacking the Logics of Union Critical Discourse.” Critical Discourse Studies 18(5):519–37. doi: 10.1080/17405904.2020.1769699




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18784/analisa.v7i2.1657
Abstract - 256 PDF - 153

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.